Physical Characteristics of Detergents

Physicial properties of detergents commonly used in membrane protein purification.

Source: Molecular Cloning, Green and Sambrook, 2012

Detergent Formula Weight (g/mol) Critical micellar concentration CMC* (mM) Critical micellar concentration CMC (%) Aggregation Number** Micellar Size (kDa)
NONIONIC
n-Octyl-B-D-glucopyranoside 292.4 18 0.53% 78 23
n-Octyl-B-D-thioglucopyranoside 308.4 9 0.28%
n-Nonyl-B-D-glucopyranoside 306.4 6.5 0.20% 133 41
n-Decyl-B-D-glucopyranoside 320.4 2.2 0.07%
n-Decyl-B-D-maltopyranoside 482.6 1.8 0.087% 69 33
n-Undecyl-B-D-maltopyranoside 496.6 0.59 0.029% 74 37
n-Dodecyl-B-D-maltopyranoside 510.6 0.17 0.0087% 78-149 40-76
n-Tridecyl-B-D-maltopyranoside 524.6 0.033 0.0017% 105 55
Digitonin 1229.3 0.5 0.06% 60 70
C8E4 306.5 8 0.25% 82 25
C10E6 423 0.9 0.025% 40 17
C12E8 539 0.09 0.00048% 123 66
Triton X-100*** 647 0.23 0.015% 75-165 49-107
Triton X-114*** 536 0.2 0.011%
Nonidet P40 (NP40)*** 603 50 0.05-0.3% 100-155 60-95
ANIONIC
Cholate 430.6 9.5 0.41% 2-3 1
Deoxycholate 414.6 6 0.24% 22 9
Taurocholate 537.7 3-11 0.16-0.59% 4 2
Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)**** 288.4 2.6 0.075% 62-101 18-29
Zwitterionic
CHAPS 614.9 8 0.49% 10 6
CHAPSO 630.9 8 0.50% 11 7
LDAO 229.4 2 0.023% 76 17
Fos-Choline-10 323.4 11 0.35% 24 8
Fos-Choline-12 351.5 1.5 0.047% 50-60 18-21
Fos-Choline-14 379.5 1.2 0.00446% 108 71
Zwittergent 3-12 335.6 3 0.094% 55-87 18-29
Zwittergent 2-14 363.6 0.2 0.007% 93-130 34-47

* CMC varies with pH, ionic strength, temperature as well as the presence of proteins, lipids and other detergent molecules.
** Aggregation number is the number of detergent monomers in a micelle.
*** Triton and NP40 detergents are chemically heterogeneous and therefore are less favorable for structural studies.
**** Limited solubility at 4°C.