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DNA sequencing reagents RNA electrophoresis buffers Agarose
Buffers for Nucleic Acid Electrophoresis Ethidium Bromide Gel Loading Buffers
Gel Staining Protein Electrophoresis

Gel Electrophoresis is an analytical technique in which a sample is added to a matrix and components of the sample are separated on the basis of a charge/mass ratio utilizing an electric field. The speed of migration depends on the size as well as the concentration of the matrix that composes the gel. A standard containing samples of known size and concentration is added to the gel in order to assist with interpretation of the results of gel electrophoresis.

DNA gel electrophoresis most commonly uses agarose as a matrix, although additional matrices (such as polyacrylamide) may be used for small or single-stranded nucleic acids. DNA carries an overall negative charge due to the phosphate backbone, so upon the application of an electric field, DNA will migrate towards the positive electrode (cathode). The speed of migration is directly proportional to the size of the molecules.

RNA electrophoresis is similar to DNA gel electrophoresis. DNA and RNA gels are used for a rough estimation of concentration and to check the purity of samples. RNA gels are used to check that samples are not degraded before quantitative PCR (qPCR) or quantitatitve RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Degraded RNA will run as a smear on gels and due the cost of qPCR reagents, a quick RNA gel is a cost-efficient method to check quality of RNA before further analysis.

Protein gel electrophoresis typically uses acrylamide as a matrix. Since proteins do not have a uniform charge, they will migrate based on a combination of mass and charge unless exposed to chemicals that will alter the overall charge. Routinely, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), an anionic detergent is used to "coat" the protein with a negative charge. SDS acts as a mild denaturant, so that the protein is unfolded, which allows for binding to the detergent, resulting in overall negative charge. In this way, proteins can then be run on a gel and will separate solely according to charge. Proteins can also be electrophoresed on polyacrylamide gels without SDS treatment and these are known as native gels.

A typical follow-up to gel electrophoresis is Southern, Northern or Western blotting. DNA gels can be transferred to membranes and hybridized to probes for southern blotting, although Southern blotting has largely been replaced with qPCR. RNA gels can be transferred to a membrane and hybridized as with DNA gels, but Northern Blotting has largely been replaced with qPCR. Protein gels can be blotted onto a membrane and hybridized with antibodies for Western Blotting.

Electrophoresis Buffers and gels are used in application of electrophoresis in molecular biology. The content of the buffers (solutions) and gels used to enhance viscosity greatly affects the mobility of micromolecules. This process is used to determine the different size of high density lipoproteins in order to establish a more accurate representation of their effectiveness
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E Buffer. 1000mL. Sterile. 6 pack Cat.No. E0540-06

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